Analyzing electrolytes in urine, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and nitrite, has significant diagnostic value in detecting various conditions, such as kidney disorder, urinary stone disease, urinary tract infection, and cystic fibrosis. Ideally, by regularly monitoring these ions with the convenience of dipsticks and portable tools, such as cellphones, informed decision making is possible to control the consumption of these ions. Here, we report a paper-based sensor for measuring the concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and nitrite in urine, accurately quantified using a smartphone-enabled platform. By testing the device with both Tris buffer and artificial urine containing a wide range of electrolyte concentrations, we demonstrate that the proposed device can be used for detecting potassium, calcium, chloride, and nitrite within the whole physiological range of concentrations, and for binary quantification of sodium concentration.
F. Ghaderinezhad, H.C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, D. Karinca, K. Liang, A. Ozcan, and S. Tasoglu, “Sensing of electrolytes in urine using a miniaturized paper-based device,” Scientific Reports DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-70456-6 (August 12, 2020).